Research | Population study


Dalton MA, Adachi-Mejia AM, Longacre MR, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Gibson JJ, Martin SK, Sargent JD, Beach ML. Parental rules and monitoring of children's movie viewing associated with children's risk for smoking and drinking. Pediatrics. 2006;18(5):1932-1942. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-3082. 1 November 2006.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette use among high school students — United States, 1991-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(26):724-726. 7 July 2006.
Tickle JJ, Hull JG, Sargent JD, Dalton MA, Heatherton TF. A structural equation model of social influences and exposure to media smoking on adolescent smoking. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 2006;28(2):117-129. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp2802_2. 1 April 2006.
Gunther AC, Bolt D, Borzekowski DLG, Liebhart JL, Dillard JP. Presumed influence on peer norms: How mass media indirectly affect adolescent smoking. Journal of Communication. 2006;56(1):52-68. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00002.x. 10 March 2006.
Goswami H, Kashyap R. Tobacco in movies and impact on youth (India). Burning Brain Society. Chandrigarh, India. 1 January 2006.


Charlesworth A, Glantz SA. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: A review. Pediatrics. 2006;160(12):1285-1296. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0141. 1 December 2005.
Sargent JD, Beach ML, Adachi-Mejia AM, Gibson JJ, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Carusi CP, Swain SD, Heatherton TF, Dalton MA. Exposure to movie smoking: Its relation to smoking initiation among US adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;116(5):1183-91. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0714. 1 November 2005.
McCool JP, Cameron LD, Petrie KJ. The influence of smoking imagery on the smoking intentions of young people: Testing a media interpretation model. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2005;36(6):475-85. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.03.006. 1 June 2005.
Sargent JD. Smoking in movies: Impact on adolescent smoking. Adolescent Medicine Clinics. 2005;16(2):345-370;ix. doi:10.1016/j.admecli.2005.02.003. 1 June 2005.


McCool JP, Cameron L, Petrie K. Stereotyping the smoker: Adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(3):308–314. doi:10.1136/tc.2003.006791. 1 September 2004.
Distefan JM, Pierce JP, Gilpin EA. Do favorite movie stars influence adolescent smoking initiation?. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94(7):1239–1244. 1 July 2004.
Sargent JD, Beach ML, Dalton MA, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Gibson JJ, Tickle JJ, Heatherton TF. Effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking initiation: A prospective study. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):149-156. doi:10.1542/peds.114.1.149. 1 July 2004.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette use among high school students — United States, 1991-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2004;53(23);499-502. 18 June 2004.